Fine motor skills are a complex and well-coordinated interaction of the nervous, bone and muscular systems, thanks to which we can perform precise movements with our hands. In other words, it is both gripping small objects and handling a spoon, fork, knife. Fine motor skills are indispensable when we fasten the buttons on the sweater, tie the laces, embroider, write. Why is it important and how to develop it?
Our brain can be compared to the most complex computer. It analyzes information from the sense organs and internal organs, forms responsive motor and behavioral reactions, is responsible for thinking, speech, the ability to read and write, and the ability to create.
About a third of the cerebral cortex is responsible for the development of hand motor skills. This third is located as close as possible to the speech center. That is why fine motor skills are so closely related to speech.
The more the child works with his fingers, the better the fine motor skills of the hands and speech develop. No wonder in Russia it has long been customary to teach children to play with their fingers from an early age. Probably everyone knows “Ladushki”, “White-sided Magpie”. After washing, the child’s hands are wiped with a towel, as if massaging each finger.
If you do not develop fine motor skills, not only speech, but also the technique of movements, speed, accuracy, strength, coordination will suffer
It also affects the formation of logic, thinking skills, strengthens memory, trains observation, imagination and coordination. The development of fine motor skills is reflected in the child’s learning and plays an important role in preparing for school.
The ability to perform certain activities is closely related to the age of the child. He learns one skill and only then can he learn something new, so the level of motor formation must be monitored.
- 0–4 months: the child knows how to coordinate eye movements, tries to reach objects with his hands. If he manages to take a toy, then the squeezing of the hand occurs reflexively.
- 4 months – 1 year: the child can shift objects from hand to hand, perform simple actions such as turning pages. Now he can grab even a small bead with two fingers.
- 1-2 years: movements are more and more confident, the child uses his index finger more actively, the first drawing skills appear (dots, circles, lines). The child already knows which hand is more convenient for him to draw and take a spoon.
- 2-3 years: hand motility allows the child to hold the scissors and cut the paper. The manner of drawing changes, the child holds a pencil in a different way, can draw figures.
- 3-4 years: the child draws confidently, can cut the sheet along the drawn line. He has already decided on the dominant hand, but uses both in games. Soon he will learn to hold a pen and pencil just like an adult.
- 4–5 years: while drawing and coloring, the child does not move with the whole hand, but only with the brush. The movements are more accurate, so it is not so difficult to cut an object out of paper or paint a picture without going beyond the outline.
- five–6 years: the child holds a pen with three fingers, draws small details, knows how to use scissors.
If you do not develop fine motor skills, not only speech, but also movement technique, speed, accuracy, strength, coordination will suffer. Modern children, as a rule, do not have very well developed motor skills, because they rarely have to fasten buttons and tie their shoelaces. Children do less household chores and handicrafts.
If a child has difficulties with writing and drawing and the parents cannot help him themselves, this is a reason to seek advice from a specialist. Who will help? Violation of fine motor skills can be associated with problems of the nervous system and certain diseases, which requires the consultation of a neurologist. You can also seek advice from a teacher-defectologist and speech therapist.
about the author
Elvira Gusakova – teacher-defectologist of the City Psychological and Pedagogical Center.